Although cupping has been reported for other parts of the Middle East as well, it is described much more frequently than cautery in reports on Egypt. Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. In addition, the activities of the pilgrimage itself—including the respite from everyday routine; the exhilaration of travel to a spiritually "magnetic" center (Preston, 1992); the cathartic effects of unburdening one's "private heartaches" (Tapper, 1990) on a nonjudgmental but responsive holy one who can be requested to act on one's behalf; the ability to be part of a sympathetic, experienced community of female sufferers who often congregate at these shrines (Mernissi, 1977); and the ministrations of the living, barakah -bestowing shaikh s who often attend to these shrines and who pray and write healing amulets for suffering pilgrims—are part and parcel of the healing process. There are several characteristics of culture impacting the interactions between Middle Eastern and Western peoples. Via crochet, instructions by Shira. Eickelman, Dale F. Moroccan Islam: Traditions and Society in a Pilgrimage Center. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. 6. In The Evil Eye: A Casebook, edited by Alan Dundes, pp. The United Arab Emirates’ health care system has a good ratio of doctors (2.5 per 1000 population) and is financed by a healthy $1600 per capitaper year. Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1978. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. Mental health conditions in the Middle East. The use of oriental has shifted to refer to home furnishings, carpets e… With rapidly growing economies linked to oil, tourism and the financial industry, countries in this area have a large population of expats from all around the world. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … Gran, Peter. "Spiritual Magnetism: An Organizing Principle for the Study of Pilgrimage." They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. In the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report issued in 2000, the UAE ranked 27 in the world for its performance. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. (January 12, 2021). Even though saint worship has always been frowned upon as shirk, or polytheism, by more scripturally minded, orthodox Muslims (Doumato, 2000), belief in the miraculous barakah of saints, the formation of cults involved in the veneration of such saints, and the subsequent movement of thousands of miracle-seeking pilgrims to and from saints' shrines are considered to be among the major hallmarks of North African Islam. Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). According to Doumato (2000), in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century the zār cult could be found virtually everywhere in the Arabic-speaking world and was integrated into the lives of women of all social classes. Second, given these beliefs concerning child health, it is not surprising that women—and particularly reproductively troubled women incapable of fulfilling their motherhood expectations and desires—are deemed particularly likely to cast the evil eye on children for the simple reason that women deprived of children cannot help but to envy them. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. However, when this feeling consistently lasts over a certain length of time, it turns in to clinical depression. These are some of the public health issues the region has to deal with today. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. "The Evil Eye and Infant Health in Lebanon." Gender, Sickness, and Healing in Rural Egypt: Ethnography in Historical Context. Inhorn, Marcia C. Quest for Conception: Gender, Infertility, and Egyptian Medical Traditions. To accurately evaluate and understand the mental health issues of the Middle East, one must take into account the geographic, historical, cultural, and social influences of that part of the world. The most widespread religion in the Middle East is Islam. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. Such healing furthermore may be multifaceted. Inhorn, Marcia C. Local Babies, Global Science: Gender, Religion, and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt. In Egypt, for example, there are four major categories of traditional healers, including dāyāt (lay midwives), who deliver babies and provide many types of "ethnogynecological" care to lower-class women patients (Inhorn, 1994a); ʿaṭṭārīn (herbalists), who work with a rich ethnopharmacopeia of herbal and mineral substances and are often skilled ethnobotanists in their own right; munaggimīn (spiritist healers), who are known for specializing in diagnostic clairvoyance and the treatment of the more difficult, socially mediated causes of ill health (e.g., infertility, impotence), including angered spirits and the sorcery acts of enemies; and shuyūkh bil-baraka (blessed shaikh s), who are typically, but not necessarily, associated with Ṣūfī orders and who bestow their own inherited or acquired barakah on patients through faith healing (i.e., laying on of hands, reading of the Qurʾān, writing healing amulets with religious inscriptions, and praying over the afflicted). Social Science and Medicine 13B (1979): 339–348. %PDF-1.5 In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. In the neighboring countries of the Arab Gulf and Levant (Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan), ḥukamā ʿarabi (Arabic doctors) may provide a variety of herbal, spiritual, and other physical remedies for difficult afflictions, such as male infertility and impotence, sometimes operating out of their own clinics and charging high prices for their services. They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. Yet despite official Islamic opposition, popular healing practices continue unabated, attesting to their power and importance in the minds of ordinary Muslims. Swagman, Charles F. Fijaʿ. For most Middle Eastern Muslims, it is a personal and professional third rail to call for the removal of religion from public life, let alone to call into question God’s existence. . Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination. In the early twenty-first century in the Middle East, there are two recurrent features of evil eye belief and practice that are relevant to a discussion of health and healing. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. As with cupping and cautery, the use of prophylactic and curative amulets dates to pre-Islamic Arabic folk medicine; however, the use of amulets was not denounced by the prophet Muḥammad and was eventually incorporated into prophetic medicine. Apart from being the largest religion in the Middle East, it is also one of the largest religions in the world. Saints of the Atlas. In Saudi Arabia, cautery has also been used historically as a favored technique to chase malevolent spirits causing emotional or physical illness out of the body, including spirits causing madness (Doumato, 2000). Books about Egypt and Sumer. Westport, Conn., 1992. Misconception of Middle Eastern Culture and Religion | Melika Rahmani | TEDxJMU Melika is a student at James Madison University. As suggested by this great variety of popular healers, ethnomedical beliefs about the causes of ill health and its treatment are multifaceted and complex in the Middle East, defying easy categorization. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. The Evil Eye: A Casebook. First, children—and particularly more highly valued male children—are believed to be one of the main targets of the evil eye, with their sickness, injury, and even death constituting possible outcomes. In 1998, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative was conducted by the World Federation for Mental Health.The (WFMH) was originally created in 1948 and works in concert with the World Health Organization (WHO). The Internet offers a wealth of information on world cultures as well as resources for multilingual patient education materials. In Women in the Muslim World, edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie, pp. Use of herbs from native plants. Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). Poems Inspired By Middle Eastern History & Culture. London, 1969. Thousands of Muslim pilgrims make ziyārāt, or visits, to saints' shrines, some large, some small, dotting the urban and rural landscapes of countries like Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt but also in Middle Eastern countries outside the Arab world, including Turkey and Iran. Pain Management in Middle Eastern Culture. Given its perceived efficacy in the treatment of rheumatic, muscular, and gynecological complaints, cupping is widely performed by both lay cupping (kasr or kaʾsāt hawāʾ ) persons and ethnomedical healers such as midwives in countries such as Egypt. Oh, and a map of the area is essential, too. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. In Changing Disease Patterns and Human Behaviour, edited by N. F. Stanley and R. A. Joske, pp. Nonetheless, prophetic medicine acquired great significance during later Islamic history and, in some cases, came to counter and supersede the then powerful yunāni medical system, which was suspected as being a science of heathen origin. In Mormons and Muslims, edited by Spencer J. Palmer, pp. Health Science project by Kate, Will, Alex, Andrea. HEALTH CARE BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS OF MIDDLE EASTERN CULTURAL GROUPS . In Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the Religious Imagination, edited by Dale F. Eickelman and James Piscatori, pp. In 1988, this author went to a small Afghan hospital in Peshawar to visit one of my Afghan students who’d developed typhoid fever. Inhorn, Marcia C. "Kabsa (a.k.a. Identification. Filipino Americans who have been in the U.S for a long time are more acculturated to the American health system than those who recently migrated. Boddy, Janice. 2. According to a recent global study, the Middle Eastern region suffers from the highest rates of depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), and suicide. As noted at the beginning of this essay, high-tech biomedical therapies such as in vitro fertilization exist simultaneously in the Middle East with popular healing practices such as the zār cult. When Mid-Easterners visit healthcare professionals for pain relief, they expect to be treated right away and given medications at the same visit. "Women, Saints, and Sanctuaries." 86–106. We believe that health issues impact on a wide range of economic and functional aspects of any economy which go way beyond the traditional view that health means hospitals. Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. Most of these shrines are associated in some way with a dead "pious one" (Eickelman, 1998), either a sayyid (a descendant of the prophet Muḥammad); a renowned cleric regarded as pious for the quality of his learning; a founder or descendant of a founder of a Ṣūfī religious brotherhood; or a holy person, male or female, known for exceptional religiosity and the demonstrated ability during his or her lifetime to perform miracles. Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. For us, Islam is not only considered a religion but is also a way of living. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Thus, many of the Thus, many of the nurses included in the studies took time out of work to pray every day . Employing personnel trained in Europe, India, Pakistan, Middle Ea… People may feel worried, low, worthless, and frequently sad. •During illness or crisis, Middle Eastern rely heavily on their “in-group” instead of trying to cope more individually as many Americans would. Indeed, it is women—not men—who are most actively involved in saint veneration and who are, therefore, the primary participants in the salvation-oriented ziyārāt to local and regional saints' tombs. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. Last updated: 8 December, 2013. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. Furthermore, these records from the past show that popular healing practices found throughout Middle Eastern countries are deeply embedded in three ancient healing traditions—pharaonic (Egyptian), yunāni (Hellenic), and prophetic (Islamic)—all of which gained ascendancy before the rise of Western biomedicine in the region during the nineteenth-century colonial period (Adib, 2004; Inhorn, 1994a). https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures, "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures The zār is a women's spirit possession cult, found primarily in Egypt, Sudan, and the Arab Gulf or the regions closest to East Africa, where the zār cult probably originated. As Peter Gran (1979) points out, the Ṣūfī cults and their shrines flourished in countries such as Egypt because they catered to the spiritual, psychological, and political needs of the lower classes as well as to their medical complaints. Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. 236–255. For women in the Middle East, healing as well as the solution of other difficult life problems is a primary impetus for ziyārāt to saints' shrines. Pillsbury, Barbara L. K. Traditional Health Care in the Near East. We cling to the ancient teachings of curing mental issues and deny modern day approach, which sometimes people call the “Western world approach” to … Social Science and Medicine 28 (1989): 381–388. "Perceiving Systems: Cold or Spirits? Mernissi, Fatima. Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. Thus even if miraculous cures do not eventuate, the pilgrimage itself may bring relief and psychological relaxation as well as spiritual renewal through contact with divinity. In this belief, anything that provokes jealousy in another gives the jealous person the power to cause illness or misfortune for the lucky person or family. Countries of the Middle East – a link to a list of 11 countries. From the early twentieth century until independence in 1960, the colony of Niger was part of French We…, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Tibet, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the Ancient near East, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in the African Diaspora, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Judaism, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Japan, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Islamic Texts and Traditions, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Indigenous Australia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Greece and Rome, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Christianity, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in China, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Āyurveda and South Asia, Healing and Medicine: Healing and Medicine in Africa, Healing and Medicine: Alternative Medicine in the New Age, Healing and the Arts in Afro-Caribbean Cultures, Health and Disease: I. About 20% of the world's Muslims live in the Middle East. The doctrines and purpose of our norms and religion have served as both a guide and a hindrance to the practice of mental health care. Ullman, Manfred. Encyclopedia of Religion. For this reason amulets often adorn the clothing of infants and young children. Underwood, Peter, and Zdenka Underwood. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures. Crapanzano, Vincent. New York, 2003. New York, 2000. Nonetheless, etiological beliefs about illness range from naturalistic (physical) to personalistic (social), to supernatural (spiritual), as is also common in many other parts of the world. Similarly, people in the West began to use the term “Oriental medicine” to differentiate Eastern medical practices from Western ones. Folk Medicine in Modern Egypt: Being Relevant Parts of the "Tibb al-Rukka" or Old Wives' Medicine. Healing is an action whose goal is the restoration of health. Furthermore, as Manfred Ullman (1978) has argued, many of the ḥadīth (sayings and traditions of the prophet Muḥammad), upon which prophetic medicine was supposedly based, were actually inauthentic, prescribing pre-Islamic folk practices that were later reinterpreted using concepts from yunāni medicine. Social Science and Medicine 15B (1981): 219–235. Dietary law: Rules And Customs In World Religions; Health and Disease. "Maqua (Therapeutic Burn) as an Indicator of Underlying Disease." While the United States has long been considered to be a nation of immigrants, the bulk of the newcomers during most of the nation's history were from the various European cultures with … "New Spells for Old: Expectations and Realities of Western Medicine in a Remote Tribal Society in Yemen, Arabia." Making an Egyptian Pharaonic Costume. El Messiri Nadim, Nawal. ••• Inhorn, Marcia C. "Sexuality, Masculinity, and Infertility in Egypt: Potent Troubles in the Marital and Medical Encounters." Walker, John. It is these popular healing traditions and their connection to Islam that represent the substance of this brief essay. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. Materials and Methods The aim of this research was to identify and summarize the research conducted to date on the topic of spirituality and health within a Middle Eastern … LANGUAGE: Arabic; many distinct indigenous languages; English Boulder, Colo., 1993. Adib, Salim M. "From the Biomedical Model to the Islamic Alternative: A Brief Overview of Medical Practices in the Contemporary Arab World." View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), depression is the most common mood disorder, characterized by feelings of sadness and loss of interest. In the early twenty-first century, the poor, and poor women in particular, continue to worship dead, miracle-working saints whose tombs, if relatively accessible, they may visit on a regular basis. ." Middle Eastern citizens may adorn their most prized possessions (e.g., homes, automobiles) with the hand of Fatima to ward off the deleterious effects of envy. Providing culturally and linguistically competent care and education for their patients can be a challenge for home care and hospice clinicians, particularly those without access to the resources of a hospital library. ." Islam; Pilgrimage, article on Muslim Pilgrimage. The Middle Eastern diet falls under the category of a Mediterranean diet, which incorporates the foods and cuisines of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Austin, Tex., 1976. So are attempts by the Saudis to reheat divisions between Sunnis and Shia. Religion; Menu. Health and Wholeness Furthermore, we cannot address cultural issues in the Middle East without mentioning the religious healer. After the Prophet's death, Muslim believers, such as Al-Suyūṭī in his Tibb-ul-Nabbi (Medicine of the Prophet), collected everything the Prophet was reported to have said about hygiene, alcohol consumption, circumcision, menstruation, breast-feeding, sanitation, and various diseases and then institutionalized these sayings into a form of medical practice (Gran, 1979). The Evil Eye. "Reading Saedi's Ahl-e Hava : Pattern and Significance in Spirit Possession Beliefs on the Southern Coasts of Iran." Rosenberg, Lior, Amiram Sagi, Nador Stahl, Baruch Greber, and Patrick Beni-Meir. Cautery (kawī, kayy, makwa, ḥadīd) involves placing a heated metal object, usually a nail or a small rod much like a branding iron, on the patient's skin. . For this reason, cautery is thought to be extremely useful for male infertility and impotence, both of which may be attributed to "weak nerves" in the back (Inhorn, 1994a). Pediatricians should respect patients' health beliefs that may not be consistent with a biomedical model of disease etiology. I was wearing […] Social Science and Medicine 35 (1992): 1313–1320. Health care organizations should implement strategies to recruit, retain, and promote at all levels of the organization a diverse staff and leadership that are representative of the demographic characteristics of the service area. What effects might a civil war have on a population's mental health? . 189–210. Cults also offered medical specialization; for example, some dealt specifically with the ailments of women, whereas others specialized in psychiatric problems, which were usually attributed to spirit possession. Identifying them can be time consuming for the busy clinician. 5 health threats facing the Middle East. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … Social Science and Medicine 58 (2004): 697–702. Morsy, Soheir A. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. "Fright and Illness in Highland Yemen." Middle Eastern Americans, overall, share visible physical characteristics, history in the region as well as in the U.S., religious traditions, including Mizrahi and Sephardic Judaism, Eastern Christianity, and Islam, along with a rich cultural heritage of common values, sensibilities in art, food, music, epic stories, etc. However, the date of retrieval is often important. State-of-the-art new hospital complexes and hi-tech equipment, along with plenty of well-qualified staff, cater for the rising prospects of national citizens. "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures "Ziyaret : Gender, Movement, and Exchange in a Turkish Community." Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. When considering the spread of knowledge, the Middle East is strategically important in a geographical sense – namely, Golden Age medicine was founded by integrating healing traditions of the Ancient Greeks and Romans in the West, along with those of the Persians and Indians in the East. Ottawa, 1980. Dundes, Alan, ed. The majority of people that make up the Middle East are we Arab Muslims who together share certain values, traditions, and old beliefs that are remarkably different from those of Westerners. El-Hamamsy, Laila. Although Middle Easterners vary ethnically, they do share a core of common values and behavior that include the … When the vessel is placed over the flame, it extinguishes the flame and causes vapor to rise. ." A review of the Middle Eastern literature would also highlight any similarities or differences from research conducted with Western populations. HEALING Tapper, Nancy. "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." 31–46. Greenwood, Bernard. Bearing this medical modernity in mind, it is also important to acknowledge that popular healing traditions still exist in the Middle East, providing a less expensive alternative to biomedicine among rural populations and the urban underclass, as well as a spiritual connection to Islam and to earlier literate medical traditions in the region. "Medical Pluralism in Arab and Egyptian History: An Overview of Class Structures and Philosophies of the Main Phases." 4. Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach. Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). Social Science and Medicine 27 (1988): 233–240. Westport, Conn., 1992. The misunderstandings tend to be mutual. Adhered like a suction cup to the patient's skin, the healing vessel is said to "grab," "suck," or "collect" excess cold moisture inside the body, or to "gather" parts of the body that have become divided (e.g., the muscles in an "open" back). between Muslim/Middle Eastern patients and medical providers. Most of these shrines contain the tombs of dead saints, and some, especially the relatively famous ones, host magnificent mosque-tomb complexes. Despite this prophetic denouncement, both cupping and cautery are found widely throughout the Middle Eastern region in the early twenty-first century. To take one example from the Middle East, Egyptian ethnomedical beliefs about the causes of infertility range from humidity to sorcery and include the possibilities of an open back, a shock, a polluting entrance, an angered spirit-sister under the ground, and the ultimate cause, which is always God's will. Getting God's Ear: Women, Islam, and Healing in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf. Rural Health Care in Egypt. Social Science and Medicine 39 (1994b): 487–505. LOCATION: Sudan Middle Eastern religion - Middle Eastern religion - Religious practices and institutions: Fertility of agriculture, of edible animals, and of the human population was a paramount factor in the life and religion of the ancient Middle East. Journal of Men's Studies 10 (2002): 343–359. Mushāhara ) and Threatened Fertility in Egypt." Cupping (kasr or kaʾsāt hawāʾ ) involves two objects—one to be lit (usually a piece of cloth dipped in a flammable liquid, a candle, or a corncob), and one to be used as a sort of suction cup (usually a glass jar, a pottery vessel, a mortar, or a cup). ... cultural health beliefs and practices and preferred language. The Middle East is the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all monotheistic religions that grew from the same tradition. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. In a Turkish Community. of the largest religion in the Middle East culture and religion | Melika Rahmani TEDxJMU. Attitudes and ideologies close to patient consider it a duty to be there the date of is... This country, and frequently sad vapor to rise ethnicity or religion James University. Culturally influenced values and communication styles Obesity Gap ( 2018 ) ALNohair, S. ( 2014 Obesity. 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